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Preschool Math Reasoning

Understanding the Development of Early Cognitive Skills in Preschoolers

Preschoolers start to develop their reasoning abilities at the same time as they start to develop their cognitive capacities. Reasoning is a crucial component of critical thinking and problem-solving. It is the mental process of reaching inferences or conclusions based on the information that is available. Parents and other adults who care for young preschoolers may enhance their cognitive development by having a better understanding of how preschoolers think. We will look at the many parts of preschoolers’ thinking in this article, how they change over time, and how parents may encourage the development of these critical cognitive abilities.

Deductive Argumentation

Drawing broad inferences from particular observations or experiences is the process of inductive reasoning. Preschoolers may not yet be able to make inferences based on patterns or similarities since they are only beginning to acquire this form of thinking. However, kids start to acquire this skill as soon as they start playing organised games like puzzles or sorting ones.


Preschoolers who use inductive reasoning are better able to comprehend broad ideas and patterns in their environment.

Preschoolers may start to make sense of the environment and establish a sense of order by formulating broad inferences based on individual observations.


Drawing inferences from specific observations may be difficult for preschoolers, especially if they haven’t had many opportunity to participate in organized play activities.

In instance, if they haven’t been exposed to a variety of situations, they can have trouble seeing patterns or parallels.

Deductive Analysis

Drawing particular inferences from broad premises or principles is known as deductive reasoning. This kind of reasoning demands a higher degree of abstract thinking than preschoolers are capable of at this moment, thus they are not yet developmentally prepared for it.


Preschoolers will get more adept at deductive reasoning as they become older and receive more life experience.

Preschoolers may start to comprehend cause-and-effect connections and acquire a sense of logic by learning to make particular inferences based on basic principles.


Deductive reasoning is not yet developmentally appropriate for preschoolers, and they may find it challenging.

For young preschoolers, introducing deductive reasoning too early may cause irritation and misunderstanding.

Critical Analysis

Making informed judgements or conclusions requires critical thinking, which is the act of evaluating information and supporting documentation. This crucial ability, which preschoolers are just starting to acquire, will become more crucial as they become older.


Preschoolers will continuously improve their critical thinking abilities throughout their lifetimes.

Preschoolers may acquire a sense of logic and reasoning that will be very useful in academic and professional contexts by learning to evaluate information and evidence.


Preschoolers may not yet be able to assess facts and evidence, especially if they haven’t had a lot of chances to practice critical thinking.

They could also have trouble forming deliberative judgements or choices, especially if they are not yet developmentally capable of doing so.


Finding answers to complicated or difficult circumstances is the process of problem-solving. Preschoolers may have difficulty coming up with their own answers since they are only starting to acquire this crucial ability.


Preschoolers will continue to develop problem-solving as a crucial cognitive talent throughout their lives.

Preschoolers may acquire a feeling of confidence and independence that will be priceless as they become older by learning to solve issues.


Preschoolers may have trouble solving problems, especially if they haven’t had a lot of chances to do so in the past.

Additionally, they could have trouble coming up with answers to complicated or difficult problems, especially if they have not yet reached the age of four, when toddlers start to grasp the notion of time, enabling them to think through past and future occurrences. This enables individuals to comprehend the effects of their activities and foresee the outcomes of various decisions. Preschoolers’ capacity for reasoning is still growing, thus they may make mistakes in judgment.

Centration, which is the propensity to concentrate on one component of a situation and neglect others, is one typical mistake in toddlers’ thinking. Preschoolers, for instance, can mistakenly conclude that a plate with less cookies has fewer than a plate with more cookies because they concentrate on the quantity of cookies on it rather than their size.

Egocentrism, which relates to the challenge of comprehending that other individuals have various viewpoints and experiences, is another mistake. Preschoolers may find it challenging to understand other people’s perspectives or show empathy for them as a result of thinking that everyone thinks and feels the same way they do.

Preschoolers may also have trouble grasping conservation, which is the idea that certain characteristics of things, like amount or volume, stay constant even though their appearance changes. For instance, even if both glasses have the same quantity of water, a young child could think that the tall, narrow glass has more of it than the short, broad one.

Despite these obstacles, preschoolers’ capacity for thinking is fast developing, and when given age-appropriate information, they may participate in complicated reasoning activities.

Promoting Preschoolers’ Reasoning Capabilities

There are several strategies for parents and teachers to encourage toddlers’ thinking abilities. Open-ended discussions that enable kids to express their views and emotions are one efficient strategy. Parents might, for instance, question their kids about their beliefs and views and push them to justify them. Preschoolers may build on their experiences and create their own ideas with this support.

Giving kids age-appropriate puzzles and games that demand them to solve riddles and think creatively is another technique to enhance reasoning abilities. Preschoolers may improve their spatial thinking, problem-solving, and memory abilities by engaging in activities like building blocks, jigsaw puzzles, and memory games.

Giving youngsters the chance to explore their surroundings is also crucial. Preschoolers may improve their curiosity and critical thinking abilities via activities like nature hikes, museum visits, and scientific projects. Preschoolers’s ability to reason is enhanced and their awareness of the world is deepened when they are encouraged to ask questions and seek solutions.

The Value of Play in the Development of Reasoning

Play is a critical component of preschoolers’ development and is necessary for the growth of their cognitive skills. Preschoolers may explore new concepts, develop their imaginations, and acquire problem-solving techniques via play. The social abilities that are necessary for thinking and decision-making, such as empathy, collaboration, and communication, are also developed in youngsters via play.

Pretend play is one kind of play that is especially good for the development of thinking. Preschoolers engage in role-playing, storytelling, and the creation of fictitious situations and characters during pretend play. Preschoolers may practice various social roles and problem-solving techniques while also expanding their creativity and imagination via pretend play.

Another sort of play that fosters thinking abilities is construction play, such as building with blocks and building toys. Preschoolers must use their spatial awareness, problem-solving skills, and ability to consider how various parts go together in order to complete these tasks.

Obstacles to the Development of Reasoning

Despite the numerous advantages of encouraging thinking in toddlers, there are certain difficulties to take into account. One difficulty is that some kids could acquire their logical thinking abilities more slowly than others. There are several potential causes for this, including genetics, environment, or developmental delays.

Parents and teachers may participate in a range of activities and exercises to aid toddlers in developing their thinking abilities. This presents another issue. Playing board games like chess or checkers, which demand strategy and creative thinking, is one such pastime. These games may teach kids to plan out their strategy and predict their opponent’s movements. Puzzles and brain teasers may also assist toddlers develop their problem-solving and creative thinking skills.

Asking open-ended questions that compel preschoolers to reflect extensively on a subject is another technique to aid in the development of their thinking abilities. For instance, a parent or teacher may ask a kid to describe why they loved a specific activity or what they learnt from a certain lesson, rather than just asking them what they did at school that day. Preschoolers might develop stronger analytical and critical thinking skills if they are encouraged to express their views and emotions.

Additionally, it’s critical to provide young preschoolers the chance to explore and experiment with their surroundings. Preschoolers may learn to make observations, formulate hypotheses, and draw conclusions based on their findings by participating in hands-on activities and experiments. This may stimulate logical and systematic thinking in kids as well as aid in the development of their scientific reasoning abilities.

Encourage toddlers to ask questions and look for solutions as another strategy to aid in the development of their thinking abilities. Parents and teachers may encourage preschoolers’ innate curiosity and inquisitiveness by giving them opportunity to explore and learn about their surroundings. Preschoolers may develop critical thinking and independence by asking questions and looking for solutions.

Reading books together and discussing the plot is a good method to teach young preschoolers to ask questions. Encourage the kid to consider the characters’ motives, the environment, and the story’s events by asking questions while you read. Encourage the youngster to ask questions as well, and assist them in researching the issues in books or online to discover the solutions.

Giving young preschoolers the chance to explore and play with items is another technique to get them to ask questions. Give them a bucket of water and a variety of things to float and sink, for instance, and encourage them to observe and anticipate what will happen. Ask them why they believe something floats or sinks, and urge them to develop and test their own hypothese.

Encouragement of toddlers’ ability to link various ideas and concepts is also crucial. Parents and educators may aid preschoolers in the development of their reasoning abilities and lay the groundwork for future learning by assisting them in understanding how various things are connected. For instance, if a youngster is passionate in dinosaurs, a parent or teacher might guide them in their exploration of ideas like evolution, geography, and anatomy.

Preschoolers should have plenty of opportunity to develop their reasoning abilities in addition to opportunities for inquiry and discovery. Giving preschoolers problems and riddles that call for analytical thought and problem-solving is one method to do this. Give the youngster a set of blocks, for instance, and instruct them to construct a tower higher than themselves. Encourage them to try out various configurations and tactics, and provide assistance as required.

Playing games that demand strategy and critical thinking is another approach to learn reasoning. For instance, “I Spy” and “20 Questions” games may teach young preschoolers to reason logically and imaginatively. While having fun with friends and family, board games like “Sequence for Kids” or “Blokus Junior” may also aid toddlers in the development of their logical thinking abilities.

In conclusion, preschoolers need to learn the crucial talent of thinking if they are to thrive in school and in life. Parents and teachers may support preschoolers in laying a solid foundation for future learning and success by giving them chances to explore, examine, ask questions, make connections, and develop their reasoning abilities.

Last but not least, it’s important to keep in mind that each kid develops thinking abilities at their unique rate. Some toddlers may need more time to master these abilities while others might start off doing well. It’s crucial to be understanding and encouraging as well as to provide young preschoolers the chance to develop their reasoning abilities in an entertaining and engaging manner.

It is our duty as educators and parents to assist preschoolers in acquiring the skills they need to succeed in life. We can help toddlers lay a solid basis for future learning and achievement by emphasizing reasoning abilities and offering chances for discovery, research, and critical thinking.